We have written a script to set up Vyatta devices with firewall rules to get your block lists, use the results to update the ipsets that are created, and to upload your firewall logs to us.
If this is a new device, please allow up to 30 minutes for our system to update and acknowledge the device.
- A management station with a web browser that can read this page and an ssh client that can access the Vyatta device.
- Set up your Vyatta device with an external Ethernet port and IP address, as well as a management IP address that can be accessed from your management station.
The Vyatta device should have ssh enabled on it. This can be setup by entering the following in the console:
You should also ensure that the device has a default gateway and name server configured. Additionally, the default name server of the device may be set to one of the ThreatSTOP DNS servers (addresses below).
- The Vyatta device should be allowed to communicate through port 53. If port 53 is unusable, or otherwise unavailable, it’s also possible to use port 5353.
Confirm that the management's ssh client can connect to the Vyatta device and log in to it; using that login session confirm that the Vyatta device can also access and download files from the Internet. In particular check that your Vyatta device can connect to ThreatSTOP’s FTP service by entering this command:
If this is a re-installation you may wish to either rename the folder ts-vyatta or restore the system to its original state before running the re-installation.
For a physical install, a Vyatta appliance or a PC with two or three network interface cards (NICs) and a Vyatta OS CD is required. For testing, either a subscription edition or the Vyatta Core is acceptable – for longer term support a subscription version is required. Vyatta recommends 1 GB of memory, and for testing purposes this is plenty; in deployment, 512 MB or less can be used unless you are planning on using the device with many features enabled. From a hard drive standpoint a 4 GB hard disk is more than enough for testing and evaluation as Vyatta only requires about 1-2 GB of space.
For a virtual install either a VM image or a blank VM and the ISO of the Vyatta CD is required. The same memory and disk requirements given for the physical install apply. If you are not using a Vyatta image then you must enable PAE support on the CPU otherwise Vyatta will not boot.
The device may be set up using either two or three NICs. In the diagram to the right a 3 NIC setup is shown with a separate management LAN (10.10.10.0/24) as well as the internal and external network interfaces.
Without additional firewall rules to block external SSH access it is not recommended to deploy the two NIC configuration outside the firewall.
This document briefly explains how to set up NAT so that devices on the 10.x.x.x networks can access the Internet via the Vyatta and to firewall the external interface so that no access is allowed to the Vyatta’s SSH console from outside. This is a very basic setup and most live deployments are more complex, including the configuration of VPNs access to internal web/mail servers from outside and so on.
In addition to the machine (or VM) that will be running Vyatta, a management station is required. This machine should have an SSH client installed (Linux/Mac OS machines have this by default for Windows you should install a client such as PuTTY (http://www.putty.org/) or Mindterm (http://www.appgate.com/index/products/mindterm/)) and access to the Internet and a web browser.
Installation of Vyatta OS onto Hard Disk
Users of the Vyatta VM image or with a Vyatta Hardware Appliance should skip this section.
- Insert the CD into the drive (add the ISO if virtual) and boot/reboot the device. You should see a Vyatta logo and the option to press F1 for help or Enter to boot.
- Press ENTER.
Once you are logged in enter the following command and follow the instructions.
If you follow the recommended defaults you will totally reformat the hard disk. If you wish to not destroy all data then you should not select auto from the partition choice. Either have the partitions set up in advance (Skip) or choose Parted.
Near the end of the process you will be asked for a password for the Vyatta account, that is not the same as the default. Once the install has finished you can eject the CD and reset the machine.
The machine will now boot Vyatta from the hard disk. When presented with the login prompt you should log in as vyatta using the password you defined during the install process.
VM Image users:
Boot the VM and then when you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta.
Hardware Appliance users:
Follow the basic instructions that came with your appliance to unpack, connect, and attach a management station to your Appliance. When you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta (both completely in lowercase).
Setup is divided in to two sections, the first is done from the console of the Vyatta device and the second done while SSHing in. It is possible to do all of the work from the console but the use of SSH allows you to cut and paste lines directly from this document, which is generally quicker and less likely to lead to errors.
When entering commands on the Vyatta console (or SSH terminal) you can press the TAB key at any time to auto complete a word so – for example – the command.
may be entered
If there are multiple possibilities these will be listed.
Also pressing the [UP ARROW] gives access to the history of prior commands that may be edited or reapplied.
Console Setup Commands
Having logged in to the console you will need to set up the Ethernet interfaces, enable SSH and set the default nameserver and gateway. As noted above, you may optionally set up other services and options either from the console or via SSH. Likewise you can set the gateway and nameserver via SSH if the management station is on the same IP subnet as the Vyatta.
To configure anything on the Vyatta device it is necessary to enter configuration mode by typing configure at the console:
First enable ssh:
Then if you have three NICs you should set up the ip address of the management interface on eth2:
If you have two NICs you should set up the ip address of internal interface (eth1):
Now set up the external IP address, default gateway, and name server (the default gateway is the next hop on the external route, the name server may be internal or external so long as it can resolve external names such as www.threatstop.com). These should be your INTERNAL default gateway and nameservers, the same as for any computer on the same network. If you don’t have your own nameservers, you can use your ISPs, or the primary ThreatSTOP nameserver:
Finally commit your changes, save and exit.
At this point the Vyatta device is correctly set up for basic SSH access.
SSH from management console
Using your ssh tool connect to the Vyatta as user vyatta
If you wish to you may configure the Vyatta further to add additional features. If you intend to add custom firewall rules it is strongly recommended that this be done after you have enabled ThreatSTOP on the device.
Verify that you can see the world by typing:
Finally verify that the Vyatta device is in our database.
If the address is NOT in the database then the response will be
If the address reported is the one you entered for the device when you added it at https://threatstop.com then you should wait for about 15 minutes and then try again. If the address remains invalid then contact ThreatSTOP tech support to find out why.
If the address reported is not the address you entered for the device at the ThreatSTOP website then you should correct that entry and wait about half an hour before retrying.
Once the address is confirmed as being in the ThreatSTOP database, you are ready to set the device up with ThreatSTOP. If you did not do the initial device addition on the ThreatSTOP website from this computer (or you closed the browser) then you should log in to your ThreatSTOP account at https://threatstop.com, select Manage Devices and then click on Rules for the device you added.
As the instructions say, it is a good idea to first save a copy of the current working configuration.
Copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
The device should download and unpack the ThreatSTOP scripts and then run the setup script which will display the following (if you have a sudo password enabled on your Vyatta device you will need to enter it when prompted). All prompts include defaulted data which has been determined to be the safest to use for most users. Pressing ENTER will use the default data. In some circumstances this data may need to be changed to match your configuration, please contact ThreatSTOP Support if there is any difficulty in setting up your installation.
When prompted whether you wish to accept the changes and deploy them. If you have a complex/non-standard configuration you may wish to enter
Nat this point and examine the files that have been created.
After the install you will see a file in the /ts-vyatta directory named threatstop_preinstall_vytatta_config_backup. This is your configuration prior to installing ThreatSTOP.
You should verify that none of the changes have broken basic connectivity and, if there are no problems, you should save the configuration so that it is used whenever the device reboots. This can be done by entering the following in the console:
To view the contents of the block and allow lists, you will need to run the ipset command:
The output will most likely go by too fast to view. You can pipe it to less so you can page through the output:
You have now set up ThreatSTOP on a Vyatta in router mode. You should now add a firewall rule to the external interface to block ssh access to the Vyatta itself:
If the commit doesn’t work and reports an error you may have hit an intermittent Vyatta bug which can be resolved by rebooting. Exit discarding changes. Reenter configuration mode, save and then reboot.
Once you have added the SSH rule and any other firewall rules you want and verified that the configuration works, you should probably save the configuration again as a named config and as the default.
In general, as noted above, due to a bug that makes Vyatta only accept a limited number of configuration changes before it doesn’t take any more you should reboot after completing the installation.
New versions of the ThreatSTOP application may have significant changes and, as such, will require a different upgrade procedure. To resolve this:
Uninstall the older version of ThreaSTOP by running the following commands from the home directory:
This will remove the previous configurations.
Once this is completed paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
Updating Vyatta OS
When updating Vyatta by using the image upgrade procedure, the scripts will be moved to a different location in the file system. This results in the block list not being updated and logs not uploading. To get ThreatSTOP working again, you will need to re-run the setup procedure, this time in the update mode. The configuration will not be modified, but the cronjobs that update the block list and upload the log are recreated. To perform the update copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
A guide to troubleshooting four common problems. If you are confused or if these steps do not help then please contact ThreatSTOP support.
ThreatSTOP rules do not appear to block anything
The most likely reason is that you have not correctly entered the firewall's IP address in the ThreatSTOP device definition page. You can verify whether the address the firewall uses is in our database by running the following from the command prompt (SSH or console):
You should see a simple result stating the device's IP address and whether it is in the database or not. Database updates are not instantaneous but take place every 20 minutes; so, if you have recently added or modified the firewall IP details, you may wish to wait about half an hour before checking this. If there is no response at all then verify by using the ping command that the firewall can reach threatstop.com and, if not, that it can reach other places such as google.com. If you have no connectivity to ThreatSTOP but do have connectivity elsewhere please contact ThreatSTOP support for further information about the status of the ThreatSTOP infrastructure.
If the address is valid but there are still problems you should manually run the blocklist retrieval procedure and then examine the output file. To download the blocklists do the following at the command prompt (SSH or console):
In the output file the first few lines should look like:
If instead you see ;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached then there is a problem with either our DNS or with the Internet path to us. If you confirm via ping (see above) that the problem is with our DNS then please contact ThreatSTOP support for guidance on how to use a backup DNS server (and when the DNS will resume operation).
If the status message is NXDOMAIN or REFUSED then the blocklist name is probably incorrect. Double-check that the name in the file is <block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local
If the status is NOERROR but the ANSWER number is 0 (or 1) then the likely issue is that you have forgotten to enable any blocklists. Go back to the devices page in your ThreatSTOP account, click Edit by the appropriate entry and confirm that you have blocklists enabled. If you are in standard mode then you should have at least the Basic, and Advanced blocklists enabled and probably either or both Botnets and Unix Server. In Expert mode you should confirm that you have some lists checked and you should contact ThreatSTOP support to understand what the lists you have enabled should be blocking.
ThreatSTOP blocks access to places it shouldn't
ThreatSTOP tries very hard to ensure that we have zero false positives in our standard lists we do, however, occasionally miss something. If you are a community user or are using ThreatSTOP in standard mode on your firewall then please report the offending domain and IP address to ThreatSTOP support. Please check in the Vyatta log file (/var/log/user/threatstop.logvar/log/messages) that the IP address is indeed being blocked by the ThreatSTOP rules before contacting us.
You can also add the ip address to a custom allow list. Once you have created the allow list and added it to this device in the Edit device page, you should run the following command on the Vyatta command prompt to enable it on the device:
While our expert lists are extremely well vetted, sometimes false positives do happen. As such, we believe that it is up to each expert user to make his or her decision about the suitability of certain feeds. Some feeds (for example, the "Parasites" feed) are known to block IP addresses that are not considered harmful by everyone. Consider creating a custom allow list (see above) as the first step and do please contact ThreatSTOP support to verify that the feeds you have chosen are appropriate to your situation.
Other firewall rules do not appear to work
The most common reason for this is that the ThreatSTOP setup script modified the existing firewall setup and in the process overwrote either the name of the firewall used for traffic or some of the rules - including changing the default action to accept.
Take a look at threatstop_preinstall_vytatta_config_backup file, and the postthreatstop saved configurations (postthreatstop is saved in /opt/vyatta/etc/config) to see what changes have been made. One place to look at is in the Interfaces section. If there are firewall names in the Bridge Interfaces section of threatstop_preinstall_vytatta_config_backup make sure that they are listed there in postthreatstop (double-check spelling differences). If those match, check that you did not overwrite rules for that firewall name. Additionally you will want to verify if the firewall name previously had a default-action accept line.
Logging private addresses
If private intranet addresses are being logged talking to other private addresses then it is possible that the issue is to do with the log-martians enable line that ThreatSTOP adds to the firewall configuration. Verify that the traffic is indeed harmless and then remove that line if it is harmless.
Restore to previous state
If you have run setup and applied the changes and wish to return to the pre-ThreatSTOP configuration then you should perform the following command (assuming that you installed to /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta).
From a console enter:
This has now restored all the files changed. To restore the configuration you should do the following:
- It is possible that you may need to enter load /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/threatstop_preinstall_vytatta_config_backup more than once to handle commit errors. Once you have managed to load the old configuration without error you should probably reboot the Vyatta device to be sure that it runs with no traces of ThreatSTOP changes in the system