We have written a script to set up Vyatta devices with firewall rules to get your block lists, use the results to update the ipsets that are created, and to upload your firewall logs to us.
- If this is a new device, please allow up to 30 minutes for our system to update and acknowledge the device.
- A management station with a web browser that can read this page and an ssh client that can access the Vyatta device.
- Set up your Vyatta device with an external Ethernet port and IP address, as well as a management IP address that can be accessed from your management station.
The Vyatta device should have ssh enabled on it. This can be setup by entering the following in the console:
You should also ensure that the device has a default gateway and name server configured. Additionally, the default name server of the device may be set to one of the ThreatSTOP DNS servers (addresses below).
The Vyatta device should be allowed to communicate through port 53. If port 53 is unusable, or otherwise unavailable, it’s also possible to use port 5353.
Confirm that the management's ssh client can connect to the Vyatta device and log in to it; using that login session confirm that the Vyatta device can also access and download files from the Internet. In particular check that your Vyatta device can connect to ThreatSTOP’s FTP service by entering this command:
If this is a re-installation you may wish to either rename the folder ts-vyatta something else or restore the system to its original state before running the re-installation.
For a physical install, a Vyatta appliance or a PC with two or three network interface cards (NICs) and a Vyatta OS CD is required. For testing, either a subscription edition or the Vyatta Core is acceptable – for longer term support a subscription version is required. Vyatta recommends 1 GB of memory, and for testing purposes this is plenty; in deployment, 512 MB or less can be used unless you are planning on using the device with many features enabled. From a hard drive standpoint a 4 GB hard disk is more than enough for testing and evaluation as Vyatta only requires about 1-2 GB of space.
For a virtual install either a VM image or a blank VM and the ISO of the Vyatta CD is required. The same memory and disk requirements given for the physical install apply. If you are not using a Vyatta image then you must enable PAE support on the CPU otherwise Vyatta will not boot.
The device may be set up using either two or three NICs and may be positioned either inside or outside the existing network firewall/router as shown in the three diagrams to the right.
Without additional firewall rules to block external SSH access it is not recommended to deploy the two NIC configuration outside the firewall.
It is preferable to install the Vyatta box behind the firewall/router if it is doing NAT to track down bots on your network. If, however, your firewall has multiple internal interfaces e.g. one for the intranet and another for DMZ servers, etc. then you should place the Vyatta box outside the firewall. In this case you will have trouble identifying the IP addresses of any bots since they will be NATted by the firewall.
In addition to the machine (or VM) that will be running Vyatta, a management station is required. This machine should have an SSH client installed (Linux/Mac OS machines have this by default for Windows you should install a client such as PuTTY (http://www.putty.org/) or Mindterm (http://www.appgate.com/index/products/mindterm/)) and access to the Internet and a web browser.
Installation of Vyatta OS onto Hard Disk
Users of the Vyatta VM image or with a Vyatta Hardware Appliance should skip this section.
- Press ENTER.
- After a short while booting up you will see a login prompt. Login as user vyatta password vyatta (both in all lowercase).
Once you are logged in enter the command below and follow the instructions.
If you follow the recommended defaults you will totally reformat the hard disk. If you wish to not destroy all data then you should not select auto from the partition choice. Either have the partitions set up in advance (Skip) or choose Parted.
Near the end of the process you will be asked for a password for the Vyatta account, that is not the same as the default. Once the install has finished you can eject the CD and reset the machine.
The machine will now boot Vyatta from the hard disk. When presented with the login prompt you should log in as vyatta using the password you defined during the install process.
VM Image users:
Boot the VM and then when you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta.
Hardware Appliance users:
Follow the basic instructions that came with your appliance to unpack, connect, and attach a management station to your Appliance. When you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta (both completely in lowercase).
Setup is divided in to two sections, the first is done from the console of the Vyatta device and the second done while SSHing in. It is possible to do all of the work from the console but the use of SSH allows you to cut and paste lines directly from this document, which is generally quicker and less likely to lead to errors.
When entering commands on the Vyatta console (or SSH terminal) you can press the TAB key at any time to auto complete a word so – for example – the command
may be entered
If there are multiple possibilities these will be listed.
Also pressing the [UP ARROW] gives access to the history of prior commands that may be edited or reapplied.
Console Setup Commands
Having logged in to the console you will need to set up the Ethernet interfaces, enable SSH and set the default nameserver and gateway. As noted above, you may optionally set up other services and options either from the console or via SSH. Likewise you can set the gateway and nameserver via SSH if the management station is on the same IP subnet as the Vyatta.
To configure anything on the Vyatta device it is necessary to enter configuration mode by typing configure at the console:
First enable ssh:
Then set up the router group using Ethernet interfaces eth0 and eth1:
If you have three NICs you should set up the ip address of the management interface on eth2:
If you have two NICs you should set up the ip address of the router group:
Now set up the default gateway and name server. These should be your INTERNAL default gateway and nameservers, the same as for any computer on the same network. If you don’t have your own nameservers, you can use your ISPs, or the primary ThreatSTOP nameserver:
Finally commit your changes, save and exit.
At this point the Vyatta device is correctly set up for basic SSH access.
SSH from management console
Using your ssh tool connect to the Vyatta as user vyatta
If you wish to you may configure the Vyatta further to add additional features. If you intend to add custom firewall rules it is strongly recommended that this be done after you have enabled ThreatSTOP on the device.
Verify that you can see the world by typing:
Finally verify that the Vyatta device is in our database.
If the address is NOT in the database then the response will be
If the address reported is the one you entered for the device when you added it at https://threatstop.com then you should wait for about 15 minutes and then try again. If the address remains invalid then contact ThreatSTOP tech support to find out why.
If the address reported is not the address you entered for the device at the ThreatSTOP website then you should correct that entry and wait about half an hour before retrying.
Once the address is confirmed as being in the ThreatSTOP database, you are ready to set the device up with ThreatSTOP. If you did not do the initial device addition on the ThreatSTOP website from this computer (or you closed the browser) then you should log in to your ThreatSTOP account at https://threatstop.com, select Manage Devices and then click on Rules for the device you added.
Look down the webpage until you see a section like:
As the instructions say, it is a good idea to first save a copy of the current working configuration.
Copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
The device should download and unpack the ThreatSTOP scripts and then run the setup script which will display the following (if you have a sudo password enabled on your Vyatta device then you will need to enter it when prompted).
You will then be asked a number of questions and normally you should accept the default values. The critical questions are the third one asking about the bridge id and the subsequent ones concerning firewall rule names and numbers. If the bridge id is not br0 then you must correct this. Likewise if you have existing firewall rules defined for the "in" and "local" directions of the bridge you must enter their names and an appropriate rule number since otherwise those rules will no longer be applied to traffic on that interface. If you do have existing rules it is generally recommended that the ThreatSTOP rules are performed first and thus that they have the lowest numbers. The setup script creates the eight ThreatSTOP rules with consecutive numbers. Thus, if your existing rules start at 10, you should specify that the script insert the rules starting at either 1 or 2.
Once these questions have been answered the script will create the install directory and copy files if required, test whether the firewall can download the block list from ThreatSTOP's DNS server and create the Vyatta firewall rules (but not apply them) and the modifications of the various files that are needed.
Now you are asked whether you wish to accept the changes. If you have a complex/non-standard configuration you may wish to say N at this point and examine the files that have been created.
Finally you have the choice to run the script to get the block list data for the first time:
After some seconds (depending on the blocklist size and the connectivity to our DNS servers this may take up to a minute) you should see a report of a successful first run when the script completes. Assuming this last step reports success, you have installed ThreatSTOP on your Vyatta routing device.
You should verify that none of the changes have broken basic connectivity and, if there are no problems, you should save the configuration so that it is used whenever the device reboots. This can be done by entering in the console:
To view the contents of the block and allow lists, you will need to run the "ipset" command:
The output will most likely go by too fast to view. You can pipe it to less so you can page through the output:
New versions of the ThreatSTOP application may have significant changes and, as such, will require a different upgrade procedure. To resolve this:
Uninstall the older version of ThreaSTOP by running the following commands from the home directory:
This will remove the previous configurations.
Once this is completed paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
Updating Vyatta OS
When updating Vyatta by using the image upgrade procedure, the scripts will be moved to a different location on the filesystem. This results in the block list not being updated and logs not uploading. In order to get ThreatSTOP working again, you will need to re-run the setup procedure, but this time it is run in update mode. The configuration will not be modified, but the cronjobs that update the block list and uploads the log are recreated.
To perform the update copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
The following five problems are frequently seen by our support staff, if you are confused or if these steps do not help then please contact ThreatSTOP support.
ThreatSTOP rules do not appear to block anything
The most likely reason is that you have not correctly entered the firewall's IP address in the ThreatSTOP device definition page. You can verify whether the address the firewall uses is in our database by running the following from the command prompt (SSH or console):
You should see a simple result stating the device's IP address and whether it is in the database or not. Database updates are not instantaneous but take place every 20 minutes; so, if you have recently added/modified the firewall IP details, you may wish to wait about half an hour before checking this. If there is no response at all then verify by using the ping command that the firewall can reach threatstop.com and, if not, that it can reach other places such as google.com. If you have no connectivity to ThreatSTOP but do have connectivity elsewhere please contact ThreatSTOP support for further information about the status of the ThreatSTOP infrastructure.
If the address is valid but there are still problems you should manually run the blocklist retrieval procedure and then examine the output file. To download the blocklists do the following at the command prompt (SSH or console):
In the output file the first few lines should look like:
If instead you see ;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached then there is a problem with either our DNS or with the Internet path to us. If you confirm via pings etc. (see above) that the problem is with our DNS then please contact ThreatSTOP support for guidance on how to use a backup DNS server (and when the DNS will resume operation).
If the status message is NXDOMAIN or REFUSED then the blocklist name is probably incorrect. Double-check that the name in the file is<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local
If the status is NOERROR but the ANSWER number is 0 (or possibly 1) then the likely issue is that you have forgotten to enable any blocklists. Go back to the devices page in your ThreatSTOP account, click edit by the appropriate entry and confirm that you have some blocklists enabled. If you are in standard mode, then normally you should have at least the Basic, and Advanced blocklists enabled and probably either or both Botnets and Unix Server lists. In expert Advanced mode you should confirm that you have some lists checked and you should contact ThreatSTOP support to understand what the lists you have enabled should be blocking.
ThreatSTOP blocks access to places it shouldn't
Although ThreatSTOP tries very hard to ensure that we have zero false positives in our standard lists, we do occasionally miss something. If you are a community user or are using ThreatSTOP in standard mode on your firewall then please report the offending domain and ip address to ThreatSTOP support. Please check in the Vyatta log file (/var/log/messages) that the IP address is indeed being blocked by the ThreatSTOP rules before contacting us.
You can also add the IP address to a custom allow list. Once you have created the allow list and added it to this device in the Edit device page, you should run the following command on the Vyatta command prompt to enable it on the device:
Our expert Advanced lists are not so well checked for false positives as we believe that it is up to each expert user to make his or her decision about the suitability of certain feeds. and Additionally some feeds - e.g. the "Parasites" feed - are known to block ip addresses that are not considered harmful by everyone. Do consider a custom allowlist (see above) as a first step and do please contact ThreatSTOP support to verify that the feeds you have chosen are appropriate to your situation.
Other firewall rules do not appear to work
The most common reason for this is that the ThreatSTOP setup script modified the existing firewall setup and in the process overwrote either the name of the firewall used for traffic or some of the rules - including changing the default action to accept.
Take a look at the "prethreatstop" and "postthreatstop" saved configurations (both are in /opt/vyatta/etc/config) to see what changes have been made. One place to look at is in the interfaces section. If there are firewall names in the prethreatstop bridge interfaces then make sure that they remain there in the postthreatstop (check spelling differences). If those match then also check that you did not overwrite rules in that firewall name and also verify that if the firewall name had a "default-action accept" line previously.
No Logs Uploaded
In many cases logging issues are related to issue 1. above. If running the validip test described above is successful then you should verify that "log enable" is set appropriately in the current configuration (all ThreatSTOP firewall drop rules should log enable in them).
You should also confirm that the systems root crontab and /etc/logrotate.d/messages files have been correctly modified. To check the root crontab do:
If crontab is correctly setup there should be a line with a number, some asterisks and then the following perl command line:
To check the /etc/logrotate.d/messages enter:
If crontab is correctly setup there should be the following lines displayed:
You should also be able to see the same lines in the relevant files in the ts-vyatta directory. An upload can be forcing a logrotation and then examining /tmp/tsoutput.txt for errors.
Logging private addresses
If private intranet addresses are being logged talking to other private addresses then it is possible that the issue is to do with the log-martians enable line that ThreatSTOP adds to the firewall configuration. You should verify that the traffic is indeed harmless and then remove the line.
Restore to previous state
If you have run setup and applied the changes and wish to return to the pre-threatstop configuration then you should perform the following command (assuming that you installed to /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta).
From a console enter:
Optionally you may also wish to remove the ts-vyatta directory (rm -r ts-vyatta/).
This has now restored all the files changed. To restore the configuration you should do the following:
- It is possible that you may need to load prethreatstop more than once to handle commit errors. Once you have managed to load the old configuration without error you should reboot the Vyatta device to be sure that it runs with no traces of ThreatSTOP changes in the system.
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